The plan, which coincides with London mayor Boris Johnson's transport strategy, targets women and young people, who cycle less than other groups.
Sustrans' London regional director Carl Pittam said: "London has seen considerable success in recent years in increasing commuter cycling in central and inner London. However, 84 per cent of Londoners never cycle and certain groups are missing out especially."
To achieve a "cycling revolution", Sustrans is working in schools under its Bike It programme, which encourages more children to use their bikes to get to school each day. The initiative will be extended to all the capital's boroughs by 2013.
Sustrans also wants to develop its TravelSmart programme, which produces travel plans for each household, across London and expand the network of greenway cycle routes.
The strategy is available at PlanningResource.co.uk/doc