Aberdeenshire Council approved the outline application for the £1 billion resort at the Menie Estate by seven votes to four.
The proposal will go before the council's infrastructure services committee next week, after which the Scottish Government will decide whether to call it in.
The council received 985 objections to plans comprising two championship golf courses, almost 1,000 holiday homes and 500 private houses. However, it was backed by 1,850 people.
The Scottish Wildlife Trust accused Trump International of overlooking the fact that about 40 per cent of the course will be on a site of special scientific interest, which is one of the top five dune habitats in the UK.