London, Manchester, Leeds and Birmingham are among the "resurgent cities" that have bounced back from deindustrialisation and deconcentration, according to a study by the centre for public policy for regions (CPPR) at the University of Glasgow.
Study authors Ivan Turok and Vlad Mykhnenko explained that the cities have recovered by developing service industries across the financial business and consumer sectors. They are now able to attract and retain university students, young professionals and migrating workers, they note.
The study found that one in three cities across Europe has experienced continuous growth over the past four decades. But a similar number of cities, mostly in central and eastern Europe, have experienced a sharp downturn since 1990.
Mykhnenko said: "Eastern European cities are suffering high out-migration to western Europe and a serious fall in birth rate. Industrial collapse lies behind many of their problems and only the capitals are still growing."
Turok added: "The competitive global environment makes it vital for local and national authorities to redouble their efforts to strengthen urban economies and jobs. Cities also need suitable amenities and living environments to attract and retain all sections of the population."
Resurgent European Cities? is available from the CPPR (tel) 0141 330 4121.