CONSULTANTS SURVEY: Consultants' work floods in

An almost universal outlook of optimism is pervading the planning consultancy sector with the ongoing recruitment problem the only obstacle, reports David Dewar.

Despite the uncertain outlook for the UK economy, planning consultancies are continuing to keep busy, with public and private sector clients still flooding firms with new commissions. In fact, the most serious problem facing consultants seems not to be a dearth of work but a lack of people available to carry it out.

Urban regeneration, environmental impact assessment (EIA), public sector work and housing - especially high-density inner city schemes - have all been sources of major growth in consultants' commissions over the past year, practitioners report. Prospects are good too, with a general feeling that the imminent planning reforms and continuing buoyancy in the development sector will provide healthy profits over the next few years.

The health of the sector can be gauged from the amount that individual fee earners are pulling in. In many leading firms, the average amount billed per planning fee earner runs into six figures, with Drivers Jonas staff topping the table with an average of £139,000. Some individuals are worth way more to their firms; in ten practices last year, the highest fee earners topped £250,000, putting their performance on a par with most planning barristers.

Many firms have found that there is so much going on that they are branching out into areas and sectors in which they have never been involved before.

This healthy situation is replicated all over the country. "There is an increasing demand for our services. We are still running at a good level of demand," says Glyn Davies, managing director of Norwich-based Carpenter Planning Consultants.

"We have seen a general expansion of planning work across all of our offices," says Clive Harridge, planning director at Entec. "It is happening across the board, including work from the ODPM on the new planning system, increasing amounts of sustainability appraisal and strategic environmental assessment work and major regeneration projects."

"Things are going very well across the board in all our offices, including residential, commercial, town centre redevelopment and retail," reveals Stephen Arnold, managing partner at Development Planning Partnership.

"We are also getting some interesting public sector work, including work for local authorities and regional development agencies (RDAs)."

"We have seen an increase in work in all areas," echoes John Goodwin, head of planning at Carter Jonas. "Residential development is becoming more contentious. The issues are so complex that people don't feel able to handle it themselves. Legislation is becoming more difficult to understand, even for professionals."

Philip Robin, the partner responsible for the planning group at King Sturge, says that while 2002 saw a big growth in telecommunications-related work, this year has seen a more general increase in all areas, notably in schemes involving the reuse of redundant industrial and manufacturing land. "With the government push towards development of residential schemes, this is a large growth area," he points out. "We advise on what the possible uses for these sites are and then take proposals forward."

Integration of services is becoming more important, and consultancies that can offer a broad range of expertise also expect to prosper. Simon Gray, technical director at Llewelyn Davies, says his firm is aiming to bring together planning policy, design and delivery of schemes into one practice. "We can do design but we can also do the delivery side, and there are not many who can do that," Gray claims.

The survey certainly suggests that planning firms of all sizes are diversifying their skills. At least three-quarters of the 118 firms responding this year have been involved in EIAs and feasibility studies over the past year. Around 70 per cent claim expertise in project design or masterplanning and 60 per cent have handled projects involving a conservation element.

Most major firms offer advice on urban design issues and funding and implementation of development projects, although these skills are noticeably sparser among smaller consultancies. At the bottom end of the scale, only 32 companies profess to have expertise in ecology and the natural environment, while just 13 feel that they are geared up to deal with archaeological issues.

While many firms in recent years have found that they have diversified their business from mainstream planning to areas like urban design, masterplanning and regeneration, something of a reverse situation has occurred at Taylor Young. Managing director Stephen Gleave reports that it has won an increasing amount of commissions for straight planning jobs on the back of its reputation in urban design.

Taylor Young has been handling planning work for Countryside Properties and has been appointed by urban regeneration company Liverpool Vision as consultant for the Kings Waterfront regeneration scheme in the city.

"Historically we've been into urban design but in the past 18 months to two years we have developed our reputation as general planning advisers," says Gleave. "We give a bit of added value with our urban design side because that is what we do anyway."

"Housing generally is an area where we have re-established ourselves," says Ross Jones, senior planning director at GL Hearn. "An area that I would immediately highlight is inner city, high-density housing and affordable housing. We have a wider client base and subject base than we have ever had. We have moved into a number of additional areas as well as consolidating our traditional activity in retail, including mixed use, urban design, leisure and conservation work."

Arnold argues that the government's planning reforms will mean more commissions for consultants. "The development industry will need consultants rather more than it has in the past," he predicts. Peter Spawforth, managing director of Spawforth Planning & Urban Regeneration Ltd, says that his firm has been doing a lot of work on masterplanning and market town planning, in addition to a raft of commercial planning commissions.

Public sector work is providing a steady influx of commissions for firms around the country, and this is expected to continue. Chris Watts, technical director at Halcrow, says: "There is lots of public sector work because local authorities have had an influx of government funding but haven't necessarily got the staff on the planning side." Gleave adds: "I reckon that more than 50 per cent of our work is public sector-driven. We have a range of public sector clients, from local authorities to quangos like Liverpool Vision."

Around 30 consultancies made at least part of their income from central government departments and agencies last year. Among major government jobs farmed out to consultancies were a study of planning application fees by Arup and the Bailey Consultancy and a guide to plan preparation and a study on the Use Classes Order, both produced by Baker Associates.

Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners recently completed a review of the permitted development system for the ODPM.

Entec, which carried out a major study into the relationship between community strategies and the forthcoming local development frameworks, has also done extensive project work for other government bodies, including the Ministry of Defence and English Partnerships. This reflects the increasing importance for planning firms of work sourced from quangos.

Mergers and acquisitions used to be a way out of the bind for major firms looking to top up their staffing levels and broaden their offer. The past year has seen one major piece of merger activity, with Insignia and CB Hillier Parker's planning teams joining forces under the CB Richard Ellis banner. "Our planning and development team will be strengthened by the merger," says senior planning director Stuart Robinson.

Elsewhere, the RPS Group acquired Ecoscope Applied Ecologists Ltd. The firm has been rebranded as RPS Ecoscope and is effectively trading as part part of RPS Planning, Transport & Environment. Donaldsons recently acquired a 40 per cent share in leisure, sports and management consultancy PMP. The two firms are co-operating on a range of planning and development projects in the fast-expanding leisure field.

Also this year, Roger Tym & Partners established Doyle Tym Design as a joint venture that gives the consultancy a foothold in the highly lucrative urban design market.

Winchester-based Pro Vision has grown through the acquisition of Newbury planning and design firm Paul, Palmer & Smith in April. With little formal merger activity, maybe the "informal strategic alliance" between SQW Ltd and BBP Regeneration suggests a more likely model for the future.

The wave of new office openings around the regions seems to have died down, with most of the major practices now looking to consolidate. However, Barton Willmore has opened a new office in Birmingham and is already expecting further growth in the Midlands. GVA Grimley, meanwhile, is looking to expand its activities in Scotland after taking on seven planners from CB Hillier Parker, while Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners has seen encouraging progress at its Manchester office.

RPS continues to lead the field of geographical coverage with 22 offices offering planning services, 17 of those with at least one chartered planner on the payroll. A further 19 firms offer planning services from at least five locations. Turley Associates and RPS now have eight offices with at least five RTPI members on the books, while Barton Willmore has similar complements at seven separate locations.

Despite the continuing growth of larger planning firms, the common feeling in the consultancy world is that there is a continuing and important role to be played by the smaller outfit. "Local authorities are working towards the eight-week target and not entering into negotiations, so there are more refusals and more appeals and the workload goes up," reports Amanda Sutton of Hampshire-based Charles Planning Associates.

"The success that we've had in the past year we would expect to continue," forecasts Sutton, whose practice estimates that its fee income will grow this year by 62 per cent. "The same goes for our competitors - everyone seems to be really busy. There has been a general increase in our workload.

We are encouraged by the fact that we have never had to do any proactive marketing - we are seeing an increase from our existing client base."

Halcrow's Chris Watts also sees good prospects for small firms. "Competition with smaller practices is getting hotter," he divulges. "There are lots of people who want to take on others who are specialists. The issue for us is how we should organise ourselves to deal with this threat. Sometimes people want a small firm rather than one of the big companies that can do everything."

Even single-person practices are convinced that they provide a responsive service that is of equal stature to that of the larger multi-disciplinary consultancies. "Clients want high-level and consistent contact, a service that they trust will be there in six months' time and no conflicts of interest," explains Justin Paul, who left FPD Savills earlier this year to set up J10 Planning in Chester.

Although this year's survey received 18 fewer responses than in 2002, the number of RTPI-registered planners recorded was only slightly lower, dropping from 1,434 to 1,402. At the same time, the number of planning fee-earners claimed rose by 500 to around 3,000. Despite the general picture of optimism, the figures demonstrate that several well-established firms have fewer RTPI members on board than last year.

But the general message, consultants maintain, is that not too much should be read into this. It is simply down to the natural process of people coming and going. Colliers CRE currently employs five chartered planners, down from eight last year. But Nigel Cooper, the firm's head of planning and development, stresses: "We are trying to move that figure up to about 12. The numbers make it look as though we are declining, but actually we are expanding, and that is a reflection of the volume of work that we are going through."

It is a similar story at Llewelyn Davies. The firm's RTPI quota is down from 14 to ten, but this does not mean that work is drying up, contends Simon Gray. "Some of the people we happen to employ at the moment do not have an RTPI qualification," he discloses. "It is the nature of our business. It covers a number of sectors and a wide range of work."

All organisations in the planning industry are facing difficulty in recruiting staff across the board. Tessa O'Neill, director of planning at Building Design Partnership, says: "We are experiencing real problems finding people in their 30s with five to six years' experience. There are problems in all sectors. I don't really understand what is happening to all these people."

"The situation has grown worse," Ross Jones agrees. "There is a shortage of people in their 30s and early 40s who are sufficiently competent. For many planners, their initial experience has involved far fewer public inquiries than there are now. Inquiries are very exacting and you need to have a lot of discipline."

"Recruitment is quite difficult," concurs Stephen Arnold. "The problem, as identified by the RTPI, is the shortage of graduates coming into the profession. This has a knock-on effect over the years. That said, we have got a very good and strong team. It's just that it takes longer to find people." Sutton describes the recruitment situation as "absolutely awful", adding: "In the past we have taken people on whom we might not have done otherwise, but we just really needed the extra staff."

Competition from the increasing array of public sector bodies employing planners is exacerbating the situation, according to O'Neill. "Organisations such as the Greater London Authority, English Partnerships and the London Development Agency are all expanding and recruiting," she says. "They can recruit with very large salaries. This is something that the private sector cannot justify. So there is wider potential in terms of organisations for people to go to, at a time when there are fewer people out there."

The result is that some practices are having to offer higher salaries to attract staff. Nigel Cooper says: "We have been able to get some very good people but we have had to pay a lot. The gap between consultancy and local authority pay is widening." But Stephen Gleave warns that it is difficult to justify inflated salaries to get people on board "because the economics just don't add up". Increased salaries do not necessarily lead to increased value for people's time or to increased fees from clients, he points out.

Some firms have less of a problem. Andrew Muir, managing director of Cardiff-based consultancy Harmers, says: "As we are a small practice, there tends not to be a constant turnover of staff. We find people more through word of mouth, so it is not as much of a problem as it is in large firms." Gleave says that Taylor Young has found it easier to recruit to its Liverpool office, as the location attracts Merseyside-based people who are unwilling to commute to Manchester.

Gareth Capner, senior partner at Barton Willmore, insists that his firm is bucking the trend on recruitment. "We are getting bright people writing in asking to join us because they believe that they will be best placed to become owner-managers. They don't want to become part of a corporate machine or salaried partners in a chartered surveying practice," he argues.

At King Sturge, Philip Robin finds that recruiting planning graduates is easier than those with some years of experience. "The problem is more with getting people with five years of post-qualification experience." Robin adds that the quality of planning graduates shows signs of improvement: "Students seem to be more on the ball," he declares. "It seems that you get people with a better awareness of what is going on."

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MAIN EMPLOYERS OF WOMEN PLANNERS 2003

Consultancies ranked by number of female chartered planners at 1

September 2003

Rank Rank Name of consultancy Women Women

2003 2002 planners fee earners

1 2 RPS Group PLC 27 114

2= 5= Drivers Jonas 23 26

2= 9= DTZ Pieda Consulting 23 26

4 1 GVA Grimley 21 40

5= 3 Barton Willmore 20

5= 4 Turley Associates 20 21

7 5= Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners 18 27

8 5= Arup 14

9 27= David Lock Associates Ltd 13 15

10 5= Development Planning Partnership 12 22

11= 11= Roger Tym & Partners 10 21

11= 13= Scott Wilson 10 55

13= 13= Terence O'Rourke 9 11

13= 13= White Young Green Planning 9 12

15= Atkins Planning/GL Hearn/Halcrow 8

15= 11= GL Hearn 8 14

15= 17= Halcrow Group 8 10

17= 17= King Sturge 7 11

17= 17= Adams Hendry Consulting Ltd 7 8

19= 40= Entec UK Ltd 5 20

19= 27= ERM

MAIN EMPLOYERS OF STUDENT PLANNERS 2003

Consultancies ranked by number of RTPI student members at 1 September

2003

Rank Rank Name of consultancy Student Chartered

2003 2002 planners planners

1 3 Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners 16 51

2 25= Development Planning Partnership 14 35

3= 16= Atkins Planning 13 33

3= 1 GVA Grimley 13 62

5 2 RPS Group PLC 11 111

6 4 Drivers Jonas 8 46

7 16= Taylor Young Ltd 7 9

8= 25= Halcrow Group 6 26

8= 10= Scott Wilson 6 29

10= 13= David Lock Associates Ltd 5 22

10= 13= EDAW 5 10

10= 5= Hepher Dixon 5 22

13= 25= DTZ Pieda Consulting 4 56

13= 9 Turley Associates 4 70

13= 5= White Young Green Planning 4 24

PLANNING CONSULTANCY EMPLOYERS 2003

Consultancies ranked by number of chartered town planners employed in UK

offices at 1 September 2003

(A) Chartered planners (1)

(B) Women planners (2)

(C) Student planners (3)

(D) Planning fee earners (4)

(E) Planning staff (5)

(F) Total (6)

Rank Rank Name of consultancy (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)

2003 2002

1 1 RPS Group PLC 111 27 11 422 516 1,360

2 3= Barton Willmore 73 20 1 154 201 205

3 3= Turley Associates 70 20 4 78 108 108

4 2 GVA Grimley 62 21 13 102 120 1,006

5 5 DTZ Pieda 56 23 4 64 237

6 6 Nathaniel Lichfield &

Partners 51 18 16 73 101 101

7 7 Drivers Jonas 46 23 8 54 54

8= 9 Development Planning

Partnership 35 12 14 54 70 70

8= 11 GL Hearn 35 8 42 53 220

10 15 Arup 34 14 3 280

11 8 Atkins Planning 33 8 13 280 300 12,000

12 10 FPD Savills Ltd 32 4 3 36 39 2,000

13 12= Scott Wilson 29 10 6 125 137 1,800

14= 18= Entec UK Ltd 26 5 1 73 73 585

14= 12= Halcrow Group 26 8 6 32 32 2,000

14= 16= Roger Tym & Partners 26 10 2 49 64 64

17 29= CgMs Ltd 25 4 35 35 50

18= 16= Terence O'Rourke 24 9 31 31 84

18= 18= White Young Green

Planning 24 9 4 29 36 1,300

20= 18= David Lock

Associates Ltd 22 13 5 45 56 56

20= 22= Babtie Group Ltd 22 4 1 25 3,500

20= 22= Hepher Dixon 22 4 5 38 47 47

23 22= Mason Richards

Planning 21 4 3 30 39 304

24 ATIS Real Weatheralls 20 2 2 24 25

25 31 Broadway Malyan

Planning 18 2 3 22 31 347

26= 26= DPDS Consulting Group 17 3 3 20 44

26= 34 King Sturge 17 7 2 28 35 1,020

28 32= Carpenter Planning

Consultants 14 4 1 16 22 22

29 36 Adams Hendry Consulting

Ltd 13 7 3 18 23 23

30 26= Building Design

Partnership 12 4 2 35 891

31= 25 Mono Consultants Ltd 11 4 22 26 123

31= 39= Spawforth Planning Ltd 11 3 1 18 26 26

33= 39= Bell Cornwell Partnership 10 2 14 14 14

33= 37= Carter Jonas 10 3 2 15 21 300

33= 29= Cushman & Wakefield

Healey & Baker 10 2 13 15

33= 35 EDAW 10 1 5 32 57

33= Emery Planning

Partnership Ltd 10 7 1 12 12 12

33= Enviros 10 2 50 300

33= 32= Llewelyn Davies Ltd 10 3 2 34 37 113

40= 47 CSJ Planning

Consultants Ltd 9 4 2 11 13 13

40= 39= Lennon Planning Ltd 9 2 1 9 16 16

40= NAI Fuller Peiser 9 2 2 12 15 180

40= 47= Taylor Young Ltd 9 1 7 9 26

44= 47= Donaldsons 8 2 1 18 18 500

44= 80= Hyder Consulting Ltd 8 4 1 82 82 1,204

44= 60= John Rose Associates 8 2 8 12 12

44= 42= Phillips Planning

Services Ltd 8 2 2 17 21 21

48= 47= Boyer Planning Ltd 7 2 9 15 15

48= 55= D & M Planning

Partnership 7 3 7 11

48= 47= David Hicken Associates

Ltd 7 1 3 11 18 18

48= 47= ERM 7 5 2 15 25 250

48= 42= Hawthorne Kamm Planning 7 1 2 10 15 15

48= 37= Knight Frank 7 1 7 9 1,200

48= 55= Peacock & Smith 7 2 1 8 11 11

48= 47= Planning Perspectives 7 1 1 8 9

48= Tyler-Parkes Partnership

Ltd 7 1 1 11 13 13

57= 70= Charles Planning

Associates Ltd 6 1 1 7 11 11

57= 60= David Lane Associates Ltd 6 3 1 6 10 10

57= 60= Halpern Partnership Ltd 6 1 1 7 9 39

57= Hunter Page Planning Ltd 6 4 7 11 11

57= Scott Brownrigg 6 1 6 6 127

57= 60= Tetlow King Group 6 2 3 16 24 46

63 60= Wyn Thomas Gordon Lewis

Ltd 5.5 1 5.5 43

64= 42= Colliers CRE 5 2 8 9 650

64= 70= DMH Planning 5 1 8 12 250

64= 60= Harmers Ltd 5 2 5 9 9

64= 55= Lovejoy 5 2 10 14 96

64= Pro Vision 5 1 10 10 20

69= 60= Bennett Urban Planning 4 1 3 9 12 140

69= Bidwells 4 1 5 5

69= 80= Enplan 4 3 4 5 5

69= Foxley Tagg Planning Ltd 4 1 6 9 9

69= Latham Architects:

Urban Design 4 2 8 8 55

69= 80= Robert Doughty

Consultancy Ltd 4 1 6 15 15

69= 70= Smith Stuart Reynolds 4 2 4 6 21

69= 70= Tweedale Ltd 4 2 6 9 28

69= 70= WA Fairhurst & Partners 4 9 9

78= Adams Holmes Associates 3 1 4 4 19

78= 80= Chichester Nunns

Partnership 3 1 3 5 5

78= 91= England & Lyle 3 3 3 3

78= 80= Humberts Planning 3 1 1 23 23

78= Kemp & Kemp Property

Consultants 3 1 1 4 4

78= 80= M Baker (Property

Services) Ltd 3 2 3 3

78= SQW Ltd 3 53

78= 70= Steven Abbott Associates 3 1 4 4

78= Symonds 3 1 50 55 820

78= URS Corporation Ltd 3 10 11 803

88= 91= AERC Ltd 2 1 5 48 53

88= Kent Planning 2 1 2 4 4

88= 91= Nigel Cant Planning 2 1 1 3 3 3

88= 91= Stoneleigh Planning

Partnership 2 2 2 2

92= CA Planning 1 1 2 3 75

92= David Simmonds Consultancy 1 6 9 9

92= John Potts Ltd 1 2 2

92= Land & Mineral

Management Ltd 1 2 3

92= Landscape Partnership 1 1 41 41

92= Mineral Planning Group 1 1 5

92= Sellwood Planning 1 1 3 3

92= Terry Farrell & Partners 1 8 20 110

92= West & Partners 1 2 2 2

92= Woods Hardwick

Planning Ltd 1 1 3

1. Number of chartered members of the RTPI employed in the UK at 1

September 2003

2. Female chartered town planners employed in the UK at 1 September 2003

3. Student members of the RTPI employed in the UK at 1 September 2003

4. Full-time or full-time equivalent staff working wholly in UK planning

consultancy at 1 September 2003 whose time can be billed to clients

5. Total staff employed in planning consultancy services in UK offices

at September 2003

6. Total staff employed by the company in UK offices at 1 September 2003

FEE EARNING CAPACITY 2003

Consultancies ranked by stated number of planning fee earners employed

at 1 September 2003

Rank Rank Name of consultancy Total Female RTPI Total Average

2003 2002 (1) (2) (3) planning fee

staff &#163;1 1 RPS Group PLC 422 114 111 516

2= 2 Arup 280 34

2= 10 Atkins Planning 280 33 300

4 3 Barton Willmore 154 20 73 201 76,600

5 14 Scott Wilson 125 55 29 137 60,000

6 4 GVA Grimley 102 40 62 120 100,000

7 8 Hyder Consulting

(UK) Ltd 82 26 8 82 81,707

8 5 Turley Associates 78 21 70 108

9= 29= Entec UK Ltd 73 20 26 73

9= 7 Nathaniel Lichfield &

Partners 73 27 51 101

11 9 DTZ Pieda Consulting 64 26 56 237

12= 11 Development Planning

Partnership 54 22 35 70

12= 6 Drivers Jonas 54 26 46 54 139,000

14 Symonds 50 8 3 55 94,000

15 13 Roger Tym & Partners 49 21 26 64 73,000

16 12 David Lock Associates

Ltd 45 15 22 56

17 15 GL Hearn 42 35 53 95,000

18 16 Hepher Dixon 38 10 22 47

19 18 FPD Savills Ltd 36 5 32 39 100,000

20= 21= Building Design

Partnership 35 9 12 125,000

20= 27= CgMs Ltd 35 6 25 35 115,000

22 23= Llewelyn Davies Ltd 34 15 10 37

23= 17 Halcrow Group 32 10 26 32

23= 23= EDAW 32 06 10 57

25 21= Terence O'Rourke 31 11 24 84

26 23= Mason Richards Planning 30 06 21 39

27 23= White Young Green

Planning 29 12 24 36

28 34 King Sturge 28 11 17 35 75,000

29 ATIS Real Weatheralls 24 06 20 25

30 Humberts Planning 23 04 03 23

31= 19 Mono Consultants Ltd 22 10 11 26 83,000

31= 32= Broadway Malyan Planning 22 04 18 31 100,000

33 36= DPDS Consulting Group 20 03 17 44

34= 41= Adams Hendry

Consulting Ltd 18 08 13 23 100,000

34= 43= Donaldsons 18 07 08 18 100,000

34= 41= Spawforth Planning Ltd 18 05 11 26 60,000

37 45= Phillips Planning

Services Ltd 17 03 08 21

38= 40 Carpenter Planning

Consultants Ltd 16 05 14 22

38= 43= Tetlow King Group 16 03 06 24 95,000

40= 48= Carter Jonas 15 05 10 21

40= 36= ERM 15 07 25 80,000

1. Full-time or full-time equivalent staff working wholly in UK planning

consultancy at 1 September 2003 whose time can be billed to clients

2. Female planning fee earners employed in the UK at 1 September 2003

3. Number of chartered RTPI members employed in UK at 1 September 2003

4. Total staff employed in planning consultancy services in UK offices

at 1 September 2003

5. Stated average fee income for each UK planning fee earner in year

ending 31 March 2003

LONDON PLANNING TEAMS

Chartered planners at 1 September 2003

31 RPS Group PLC

29 Arup

29 Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners

26 GVA Grimley

22 Barton Willmore

21 CgMs Ltd

17 Drivers Jonas

15 ATIS Real Weatheralls

14 GL Hearn

14 Hepher Dixon

13 DTZ Pieda Consulting

13 Turley Associates

12 Halcrow Group

10 Cushman & Wakefield

Healey & Baker

10 King Sturge

09 EDAW

09 Roger Tym & Partners

08 Donaldsons

08 Llewelyn Davies Ltd

06 Halpern Partnership Ltd

05 Broadway Malyan Planning

05 Colliers CRE

05 Chesterton PLC

04 Bennett Urban Planning

04 Knight Frank

04 NAI Fuller Peiser

04 Scott Wilson

04 White Young Green Planning

03 FPD Savills Ltd

03 Scott Brownrigg

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